Titre: Adam Wilson Graham diary entry dated 12 September 1869
Auteur: Graham, Andrew Wison
Source: Archives of Manitoba, MG3 B10, Adam Wilson Graham
Page 1 of 1


Sept. 12 - Frost hard enough to kill potato
vines. We have moved into our new house. The crops this
year are fine, wheat 40 bushels to the acre. The protect
the wheat crop from blackbirds, while in the milk stage,
farmers have to ride on horseback or go on foot or both,
around and around and around their wheat fields from day-
light till dark, yelling, pounding tin pans and shouting
to keep off birds that come in hundred from the
sloughs near Portage and Lake Manitoba to feed on the
wheat. Our food here is mostly pemmican and potatoes,
bread and black tea. Currie powder is used on the pem-
mican. Bread is made by the natives (old settlers) from
whole wheat flour ground by windmill, rolled out thin and
baked on top of smooth box stoves. This bread is hard,
and will keep for months. Pemmican is made of dried Buf-
falo meat pound up fine, over which is poured hot grease,
supposed to be buffalo grease, but sometimes wolf - thor-
oughly mixed and put into bags made from buffalo hides,
keep for years. No salt used. Sometimes wild berries
are added; this commands a better price. Note - We helped
bind and shock wheat for McKay, of Poplar Point, and Bell,
of High Bluff. One day we were binding with gloves and over-
coats on, snowflakes falling. The Hon. Mr. Howe visited
Fort Garry and vicinity this fall. He did not come to
Portage-la-Prairie. He said it was so windy it took two men
to hold one man's hat on.

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